1. Examine the causes and effects of the refugee problem in Uganda.

2. 'Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a practice which should be abolished'.

3. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of foreign aid to your country.

4. To what extent has the mass media influenced morals in Uganda?

5. Examine the merits and demerits of the decentralization policy in Uganda.

6. 'The current socio - political problems in Uganda are a result of lack of a national language'. Discuss.


Answer one question from this section.

7. Study this information carefully and answer thee questions which follow:

Uganda has a growing number of orphans. The results of the 1991 Housing and population census suggest a total number of 1.48 million orphans or 18% of children below the age of 19 years.

Many are found in there districts - Mpigi, Rakai and Masaka.











There are 70 children's homes in Uganda, caring for 2,900 children, many of whom are orphans. These cater for about 0.2% of all orphaned children.

Another recent development in Uganda is street children. According to the ministry of labour and social welfare, there are about 2,000 street children (Kampala 1,000; Mbale 300; Busia 100; Lira 100; Lyantonde 200; and others 300).


a) Calculate the total number of children in Uganda.

b) I) Calculate the total number of children living in each of the districts of Rakai and Masaka.

ii) Find the proportion of the children living in the three districts to the total number of children in the country.

c) Suggest reasons for the high percentage of orphaned children in the district of Mpigi, Rakai and Masaka.

d) Suggest reasons why there are few orphans (0.2%) in children's homes.

e) Explain the existence of street children in Uganda.

8. Read the passage below and answer the questions which follow, using your own words wherever possible.

For nearly five centuries, the sprawling Amazon rain forest has devoured fortune hunters as readily as it has inspired them. Now much of that is changing. Half a dozen mining and hydroelectric projects are nearing completion. The Amazon's untamed interior is steadily giving way to engineers and homesteaders. Along its rivers and its newly constructed highways, the forest and the jungle are yielding, bit by bit ranches, small business and nascent boomtowns.

Brazil's ambitious attempt to conquer the Amazon, a territory of immense riches and immense potential, is still a giant national gamble that could go awry. Wrecks of previous grand schemes are strewn through the Amazon's history. Henry ford and Daniel Ludwig, two of the world's richest men, both lost massive amounts of money when they tried to make a profit by exploiting the Amazon's timber. The current Brazilian government has done far better, but its economic successes have also creted serious problems. The gargantuan construction and colonization projects have taken a severe toll on the fragile Amazon ecology and on the indigenous inhabitants and the region's extractive industries are unusually vulnerable to the whims of the global market. Nonetheless, Brazil is pushing ahead with its development plans.

The Amazon has some of nature's most dazzling unclaimed prizes. The river basin is very large indeed. The river's 100 major tributaries hold a quarter of the world's fresh water; fully exploited they could produce vast amounts of hydroelectric power. The tropical jungles have enough high grades iron to meet world demand four centuries and immense reserves of bauxite, nixel, copper, tin, gold and timber sit untapped in the almost impenetrable forests. The Amazon also has one of the most valuable of all resources land. Brazil needs the Amazon to make room for its burgeoning population expected to reach 220 million by the year 2000.

To harvest these riches, Brazil is relying on a handful of massive projects. The most ambitious is the Carajas mining and industrial complex in Para state. When completed it will process and ship millions of tons of iron ore and other minerals to USA, Europe and Asia. In a region of extreme poverty and sparse population, the carajas project will employ some 6000 people. The government in Brasilia hopes this massive undertaking will stimulate other commercial ventures, both around carajas and along the 880 kilometer railway leading to the Atlantic. The carajas complex is the show case of Brazil's efforts to boost its exports.

Other major projects will also be coming on line. In the east Amazon, near the city of Belem, a series of aluminum - processing plants are scheduled to begin operations.

Despite the attention and money that is being lavished on Brazil's massive construction schemes, the efforts to tame the Amazon depend to a considerable degree on the lowly colonist, the intrepid and sometimes desperate settler seeking a better life. Many of the colonists come from Brazil's industrial slums. Others come from the drought - stricken plains of the north - east. Still more come from the fertile south, where mechanized farming has increased agricultural yields but has thrown many farmers out of work; these colonialists are often the blonde, fair skinned sons and grad sons of Ukrainians, Germans and Italians, the jetsam of world wars and the farmed out lands of Europe.

By slow degrees, the colonists are beginning to transform the forest. The opening of the 5000 kilometer Trans - Amazon Highway in 1973 helped spur the migration. To be sure, the jungle has already reclaimed many of the road's less travelled sections but it has also been a main artery into the Amazon jungle for tens of thousands of settlers. With the completion of Route 364, and with other highways being planned, that influx is almost certain to grow.

The dark side of the picture is that the pioneers who succeed will be vastly out- numbered by those who fail. Like colonist through history, many come with great schemes and it seems, little commonsense. Other settlers arrive with little of the practical experience needed to overcome the countless problems awaiting them in the astonishingly complex environment of the Amazon.

Those who do prevail are usually people who have money in the bank and years of experience in turning brush land into crop land. But in many cases, not even those assets are enough. Bank loans and government credits for those who want to buy land or equipment are expensive, and even for those who do have the money they can be difficult to obtain. And the dream of securing an unclaimed tract frequently turns into a recurring nightmare. It is not unusual for would be settlers to wait as long as four years to gain ownership of a workable plot. As a result, conflicts between squatters and moneyed land owners, small settlers and large developers, have become increasingly common and increasingly violent.


a) Suggest an appropriate title for this passage.

b) According to the author, what problems have been caused by the economic success of the present Brazilian government?

(Answer in not more than 150 words.)

c) What is the importance of the carajas complex?

d) How does the author explain the "dark side of the picture"?

e) Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases as used in the passage:

i. has devoured fortune hunters as readily as it has inspired them ( line 01 - 02)

ii. untamed (line 04)

iii. yielding (line 05)

iv. awry (line 08)

v. wrecks ...........are strewn through the Amazon's history (line 08 - 09)

vi. dazzling unclaimed prizes (line 18)

vii. coming on line (line 34)

viii. intrepid (line 38)

ix. dream .............turns into a recurring night mare (line 60 - 61)